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Book Title: Essential Thinkers - Socrates|
The author of the book: Socrates
Edition: Barnes & Noble Books
Date of issue: January 15th 2004
ISBN 13: 9780760762394
Loaded: 1578 times
Reader ratings: 6.4
Format files: PDF
The size of the: 36.88 MB
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For Socrates, as for Jesus Christ, we have few biographical details, and nearly all those we have come from his greatest admirer. But it is clear that Socrates contributed three new ideas to the development of philosophy: that goodness consists not in helping friends and harming enemies, but in not harming anybody at all; that goodness and knowledge are one and the same thing; and that for progress to be made in argument, there must be step-by-step agreement between those arguing.
The similarity to Jesus goes further. Socrates too was put to death for defying the conventions of his day; and he too sets us, by the manner of his life and his death, an example which is at the same time an inspiration and an impossible ideal.
Socrates was born in Athens in 469bce, and spent much of his life pointing out the absurdities of current beliefs. Though he played no part in political life, he antagonized both the democratic and oligarchic factions in Athens, and in 399bce was put to death on a charge of atheism and corrupting the young. By the manner of his life and death he became the inspiration for the philosopher Plato.
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Read information about the authorThe philosopher Socrates remains, as he was in his lifetime (469–399 B.C.E.), an enigma, an inscrutable individual who, despite having written nothing, is considered one of the handful of philosophers who forever changed how philosophy itself was to be conceived. All our information about him is second-hand and most of it vigorously disputed, but his trial and death at the hands of the Athenian democracy is nevertheless the founding myth of the academic discipline of philosophy, and his influence has been felt far beyond philosophy itself, and in every age. Because his life is widely considered paradigmatic for the philosophic life and, more generally, for how anyone ought to live, Socrates has been encumbered with the admiration and emulation normally reserved for founders of religious sects—Jesus or Buddha—strange for someone who tried so hard to make others do their own thinking, and for someone convicted and executed on the charge of irreverence toward the gods. Certainly he was impressive, so impressive that many others were moved to write about him, all of whom found him strange by the conventions of fifth-century Athens: in his appearance, personality, and behavior, as well as in his views and methods.
So thorny is the difficulty of distinguishing the historical Socrates from the Socrateses of the authors of the texts in which he appears and, moreover, from the Socrateses of scores of later interpreters, that the whole contested issue is generally referred to as the Socratic problem. Each age, each intellectual turn, produces a Socrates of its own. It is no less true now that, “The ‘real’ Socrates we have not: what we have is a set of interpretations each of which represents a ‘theoretically possible’ Socrates,” as Cornelia de Vogel (1955, 28) put it. In fact, de Vogel was writing as a new analytic paradigm for interpreting Socrates was about to become standard—Gregory Vlastos' model (§2.2), which would hold sway until the mid 1990s. Who Socrates really was is fundamental to Vlastos' interpretation of the philosophical dialogues of Plato, as it is to virtually any interpretation, because Socrates is the dominant figure in most of Plato's dialogues.
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